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In TRX-NeXT a considerable expertise in design, implementation and interpretation of geophysical surveys has been developed through the years. This professional skill, associated with dedicated work, high quality standards and client oriented service represents our "Core Business" and recognized specialty.

The wide variety of equipment and available techniques enables TRX professionals to face each project with the appropriate methodology, instrumentation and industrial scale approach. This capability and experience has been fully integrated with multidisciplinary interpretation methods allowing effective and practical solutions to various geo scientific problems.

OUR STRENGTHS

  • Use of state of art hardware, software and 2D-3D numerical processing.
  • Continuous technological evolution through collaboration with the industry / research sector and participation in international congresses and professional formation courses.
  • The broadest range of modern equipment for each method.
  • Highly skilled and qualified staff complying with international operating standards.
  • Specialists in industrial and urban environments Noninvasive - Nondestructive techniques application


    " … When you can measure what you are talking about and express it in numbers, you know something about it."
    Lord Kelvin 1883.

WHAT WE OFFER

Integration of geophysical and multidisciplinary methods in:

Engineering & Geotechnics

  • Pre-Construction/Design Screening, Site characterization.
  • Rock depth, geotechnical substratum and weathering layer thickness definition.
  • Geological hazards characterization.
  • Surface and borehole geotechnical seismic for the definition of dynamic parameters, integrity - rippability and rock quality (RQD, Q, UCS, RMR..), load capacity, soil improvement 4D evaluation, etc.
  • Seismic zoning (specific seismic site classification), local seismic response assessment, dynamic modeling and seismic requalification studies of structures / buildings.
  • Vibration monitoring in industrial activity, construction, demolition, and mining (blasting). Structures and human vibration affectation monitoring.
  • Buried utilities and objects 3D CAD mapping, leak detection and characterization of pipeline routes.
  • Pavements evaluation (airports, roads, railways...).
  • Resistivity surveys for grounding, corrosion and soils aggressivity evaluation. Thermal resistivity.
  • Concrete structures non invasive integrity evaluation. Length and dimension of piles and foundations definition.  Integrity test, dynamic / static evaluation of piles. Quality assurance.
  • Support to:
  • Dam construction investigations and monitoring.
  • Tunnels, bridges and road construction and monitoring studies.
  • Trenchless - No Dig and directional drilling technologies.
  • Investigations in Urban & Industrial environments.
  • River and lakes studies, bathymetry, sediment thickness, dredging assessment.

Enviroment

  • EPA Phase I and II type studies in environmental site assessment.
  • Detection of buried waste containers, utilities and underground tanks (UST) studies.
  • Landfills, buried waste and DNAPL-LNAPL plumes characterization.
  • Air, soil and groundwater pollution characterization.
  • Audit and monitoring of sanitary landfills, tailings ponds, etc.
  • Mapping of radioactive waste.
  • Remediation monitoring.
  • Vibration monitoring (effects on humans).

Groundwater

  • Resources exploration and characterization (alluvial/sedimentary & fractured hosted reservoirs).
  • Development, management, and protection of water resources.

Natural Resources Exploration

  • Metallic and nonmetallic ore deposits exploration.
  • Aggregates, construction and ornamental materials characterization.
  • Geothermal exploration.
  • Oil exploration. Acquisition and reprocessing of ground potential methods. Shallow resource identification with active EM/resistivity methods.

Archaeology and Other Applications

  • Archeology studies (exploration and cultural heritage structures integrity evaluation).
  • Forensic and police investigation.
  • Esoteric geophysics.


TRX is a recognized leading geo-scientific consultancy group in Noninvasive - Nondestructive techniques application and studies in URBAN and INDUSTRIAL environments. 

Gravimetry


WHAT IT MEASURES

This technique consists in measuring relative changes in the earth gravity field. Variations, also subtle of the subsurface materials density produce anomalies in the gravity field that can be measured accurately.

WHAT WE OFFER

  • Definition of the basement morphology and regional structural framework.
  • Monitoring of groundwater variations.
  • Regional geological mapping.
  • Oil exploration.
  • Placer studies in mining activities.
  • Mass excess detection: massive sulphides, etc.
  • Mass deficit detection: coal, salt deposits, etc.
  • Micro gravimetry in:
    • Subsidence, settlements and isostasy studies.
    • Detection of voids, cavities and karsts.
    • Site characterization.

 

AVAILABLE INSTRUMENTS

TRX-NeXT group uses a high resolution digital micro gravimeter  Scintrex CG-5 model and state of the art software.

Magnetics

WHAT IT MEASURES

The application of this method allows obtaining information related to subsoil/rock magnetic properties. In practice it measures the effect on the relative content and distribution of magnetite and magnetic minerals in the subsurface allowing characterizing geological environments and identifying magnetic objects.

WHAT WE OFFER

  • Geologic mapping of units that show susceptibility contrast.
  • Structural mapping (faults, shears, fractures, folds, etc.).
  • Basement depth characterization.
  • Mineral deposits exploration.
  • Buried metallic object detection (pipes, tanks, wastes…).
  • Sanitary landfills perimeter delineation.

 

AVAILABLE INSTRUMENTS

TRX-NeXT group uses four (4) high-resolution digital GEM GSM-19 Overhauser magnetometers, in gradiometer, walking mag configurations with omni directional sensors for low latitude investigations and GPS synchronized positioning.

Radiometrics

WHAT IT MEASURES

The method allows to measure, in certain energy windows associated to unstable isotopes, relative concentrations of radioactive elements associated to minerals present in rocks, soils within the first dozens of meters of depth

WHAT WE OFFER

  • Minerals exploration.
  • Gas and oil exploration.
  • Geologic mapping.
  • Core Logging.
  • Environmental monitoring.

 

AVAILABLE INSTRUMENTS

TRX-NeXT group uses an Exploranium GR-256 and an RS125 Radiation Solutions spectrometer.

Electrical Resistivity

In electrical methods, a current I is transmitted into the ground with two electrodes (A, B), while the difference of potential V produced by the circulation of this current into the geological layers is measured with two other electrodes (M, N). This allows investigating the resistivity parameter distribution in the subsurface. As a function of the field configuration, soundings (VES) or multi electrode arrays, i.e. electrical tomography (ERT Electric Resistivity Tomography), can be acquired. Investigation depths of electrical methods are directly related with data acquisition array geometry and depends on the resistivity of the investigated medium.  

WHAT IT MEASURES

Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES)

The purpose of a VES is determining the vertical distribution of subsoil layer resistivities beneath the investigated point. TRX group commonly uses the "Schlumberger symmetric quadripole." This application, despite its relative complex execution logistics is considered a valid and robust tool for small-scale budget studies. The investigation depth of this method is in the order of 0.1-0.3 times the total length of the arrangement AB used. For this, lots of space is needed for the array in order to characterize deep targets (for a desired investigation depth of 200 m an arrangement of AB/2 = 1000m is needed along with at least 500W transmitter power!!!!).

Electrical Tomography (ERT)

ERT is a geophysical imaging technology that measures electrical resistivity in soil and rock using an array of electrodes and automated measurements from the ground surface. This application is the modern definition of a classic electric profiling system that takes advantage of technological innovations both in the acquisition (with computerized multichannel instruments) as well as in processing and quantitative 2D /3D interpretation. For Schlumberger, Wenner and Dipole-Dipole configurations the investigation depth of the method is in the order of 0.2 times the total length of the array).

WHAT WE OFFER

  • Electro-stratigraphy and substratum depth characterization.
  • Structural mapping and geologic risks evaluation.
  • Aquifers location and characterization.
  • Soil studies (agriculture, environment).
  • Location of conductors in horizontal stratified media (saline intrusions, pollutant, expansive clays).
  • Construction/aggregate materials characterization.
  • Landfill areas geometrical definition and volumetric calculation.
  • Lateral and vertical mapping of contaminant plumes.
  • Cathodic protection and soil electrical structures grounding studies.

OUR STRENGTHS

  • The widest range of instrumentation in the country with possibility to work at any scale (from small scale to regional studies of hundreds of soundings/arrays that require multiple equipments).
  • International education in the best schools in geophysics and resistivity work experience in several countries (4 continents).
  • Capability to perform deep investigations (500-1000m or more) with high-powered current transmitters (up to 4800W-10A).  TRX main scientist has performed dozens of long VES up to AB/2=5000m for geothermal research.
  • Ability to combine different resistivity soundings methods (VES-electric and TDEM-electromagnetic time domain) in case of difficult access areas (as industrial zones) where you cannot install large VES arrays.
  • In studies of ground and soil resistivity studies (grounding and cathodic protection) we offer the latest multi-channel and multi-directional data acquisition techniques, with advanced numerical processing for the definition of real resistivities.
  • Use of advanced numerical processing techniques that include 2D and 3D interpretations with sophisticated software legally licensed to TRX Group.

AVAILABLE INSTRUMENTS

TRX-NeXT group uses different units.

  • Transmitters IRIS VIP 4000w (5A), GDD TXII 4800w (10A), 2 x DT Barlow 500w, Scintrex IPC-8 250w
  • Receivers IRIS Elrec IP6 & IP10, DT Barlow, Scintrex IP-10A
  • 2 ERT Units Iris Syscal Pro switch 48 & Syscal R1 switch 48 for 2D and 3D tomography execution.

Induced Polarization

WHAT IT MEASURES

The induced polarization method quantifies the capacitive properties of geological formations or elements, minerals, fluids present in the subsurface that act as "mini-capacitors." These capacitive features could be clays, anomalous minerals as disseminated sulphides, while fluids might be represented by heavy metals pollution.  

WHAT WE OFFER

  • Location of conductive or polarizable objects.
  • Detection of disseminated metallic minerals.
  • Massive sulphides detection.
  • Alteration areas mapping.
  • Clay - sand discrimination in alluvials.
  • Structures characterization.
  • Polluted areas mapping (especially if characterized by heavy metals).

AVAILABLE INSTRUMENTS

TRX-NeXT group uses the following instrumentation:

  • Transmitters  IRIS VIP 4000w (5A), GDD TXII 4800w (10A), 2 x DT Barlow 500w, Scintrex IPC-8 250w
  • Receivers IRIS Elrec IP6, Iris Elrec IP10
 

REFLECTION / REFRACTION SEISMIC

WHAT IT MEASURES

Seismic methods are the most commonly conducted geophysical surveys for engineering investigations. They provide engineers and geologists with the most basic of geologic data via simple procedures with common equipment. Any mechanical vibration is initiated by a source and travels to the location where the vibration is recorded. These vibrations are seismic waves, which include compressional and shear waves, that are measured by seismographs. The Seismic reflection technique maps the subsurface stratigraphy based on density and velocity contrasts between earth materials. The seismic wave, generated at the ground surface, travels through the earth and is reflected an interfaces where a change in density and velocity occurs. The reflected waves are detected by a geophone array and recorded by a seismograph. The Seismic refraction method uses seismic waves, introduced into the ground by a hammer/weight-drop source, to define the compressional velocity of the subsoil. The seismic wave changes direction and speed, being refracted, as it propagates through the earth. When the refracted seismic wave reaches an interface at a critical incident angle, the energy travels along the interface and rebound seismic wavelets back to surface. Geophones placed at selected intervals along the ground surface detect the ground motion and send an electrical signal, via a cable, to the seismograph. The seismograph digitizes, amplifies, filters and records the incoming signals. Analysis of the arrival times of the refracted wave provides a means for calculating the seismic velocity and modeling depths to subsurface layers.  

WHAT WE OFFER

  • Substratum depth and sismo-stratigraphy characterization.
  • Cavities, fractures studies / rock excavation (rippability).
  • Engineering investigations for foundations design.  Determination of geotechnical - dynamic parameters of soils and rocks.
  • Aggregate and Mining exploration (placers).
  • Civil and transport infrastructure studies.
  • Location of aquifers and definition of its thickness.

OUR STRENGTHS

  • Multiple standard and wireless Seismographs (24/32 BIT). These configurations and their combination allow us to operate in any environment.
  • Use of mechanical sources designed by TRX group to allow excellent energizing and high signal/noise relationship.
  • Use of advanced numerical processing including 2D and 3D tomographic interpretations

MICROTREMORS / ReMi - MASW

WHAT IT MEASURES

TRX NeXT group offers a full range of micro tremors and surface waves methods, modern techniques used for in situ measurements of shear wave velocity (Vs) profiles using ambient noise. Among these seismic methods TRX is specialized in the application of ReMi (refraction micro tremors), MASW (Multichannel Array of Surface Waves), SPAC, FK, etc.

TRX is pioneer in the ReMi method application and is the official representative in Latin America with exclusivity in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Chile.
The main advantages of these methods are:

  • Possibility to generate Vs profiles that can be used for subsurface mapping and geomechanical and dynamic parameter estimation.
  • Surface waves methods represent the modern and economical alternative in direct Vs profile measurements without using empirical methods.
  • No need of a special power source for the generation of the energizing signal (except active MASW that need only the impulse of a hammer).
  • Possibility to be used in urban and industrial environments (ideal solutions for geotechnical and civil engineering applications).
  • Possibility to be applied in shallow marine environments.
  • The method is not sensitive to velocities inversions (limit to the application of traditional refraction seismic methods) and provides greater depth of investigation as compared to other surface techniques.

WHAT WE OFFER

  • Subsoil shear velocity analysis and seismic stratigraphy. Rock depth definition (Vs > 700-800m/s).
  • Subsurface mapping, estimation of stiffness (Gmax) and geomechanical parameters.
  • 3D and 4D compaction / soil improvement control and monitoring.
  • Identification of cultural and geological structures such as landfills, shear zones, cavities-karsts, etc.
  • Vs30 and soil classification (IBC Code / NEHRP, ASCE, EC8, etc.).
  • Local site response characterization and seismic zoning along with fundamental period measurements (HVSR- Nakamura).
  • Spectral shape definition (spectral response) according to national and international standards. Definition of input profile for dynamic modeling.
  • Liquefaction risk analysis.

OUR STRENGTHS

  • Experience since 2004 in micro tremors studies in 6 different countries.
  • Certified preparation in international specialization courses (Sesame-Neries, Kansas Geological Survey, University of Nevada Reno-Optim).
  • Use of latest technology, 24 and 32 bit, continuous recording capability and wide range (DC to 15 kHz) seismographs. In particular, the use of wireless units allows us to investigate in urban and industrial environments and natural barriers (rivers, shallow water...), complex conditions that limit the classic data acquisition with cable implementations.
  • Possibility to investigate at great depths (a few hundred meters) with the use of large arrays and low frequency and broadband geophones.
  • Use of advanced numerical processing including 2D and 3D interpretations.
  • Specialists in Subways / Metro and mass transport route characterization in urban environments (experience in Madrid - Spain, Caracas, Teques and Guarenas / Guatire - Venezuela and Quito - Ecuador).

AVAILABLE INSTRUMENTS

Para la adquisición y procesamiento/interpretación de datos TRX usa una unidad digital de alta resolución modelo DAQ-Link III de  48 canales, geófonos de 1, 4.5, 10 Hz y de banda ancha (1-315 Hz) ecualizados electrónicamente y software de última generación.

Seismics

Seismic methods, further to providing information about subsurface geometry, allow derivating geotechnical parameters directly related to the geomechanical and dynamics properties of the investigated formations.

TRX Group is specialized in the application of different seismic methods in shallow investigations applied in geotechnical and engineering projects. 

Among the methods used:

 

AVAILABLE INSTRUMENTS

TRX-NeXT group uses high-resolution digital, 24 and 48 channels, DAQ-Link III seismographs and multiple 32 bit 3-channel wireless iSeis Sigma units with 4.5, 10, 14 Hz and broadband (1-315 Hz) electronically equalized Geophones

NATURAL VIBRATIONS SEISMICS

WHAT IT MEASURES

Vibration monitoring represents the response analysis of sites, sensitive areas or structures to ground / foundations motion, generally produced by industrial activities or natural movements. This assessment evaluates the dynamic characteristics of the investigated site and quantifies the possible involvement of events represented by repetitive or temporary movements to structures or humans. 

WHAT WE OFFER

AVAILABLE INSTRUMENTS

TRX - NeXT group uses a 6 channel digital unit Syscom 3000 CE-2012 model, a triaxial high resolution MS 2006+ geophone and latest generation software

ELECTROMAGNETICS EM

TRX Group offers a wide experience in acquisition and advanced processing / modeling of Electromagnetic (EM) methods. The availability of a broad range of modern equipment and software, allows the maximum use of information supplied by these technologies.

WHAT IT MEASURES

EM methods allow to measure subsurface conductivity (reciprocal of resistivity) variations. The ground electrical conductivity depends on different parameters of soil and geology of the site as:

  • Water conductivity, porosity, and soil water saturation degree.
  • Clay content.
  • Presence of polluting fluids.
  • Conducting minerals content.
  • Lateral and vertical lithological variations.
  • Lateral variations (structures, etc.).

 

The main advantage of EM methods over traditional applications of resistivity is not sensitive to noise associated with surface geological features such as laterite, weathering, etc., and inappropriate contact of the electrodes with the ground.
Conceptually, there are two major categories of electromagnetic methods, those working in the Frequency Domain (FDEM) and those working in the Time Domain (TDEM). A “third” method is the VLF - VLF / R EM, which could be grouped among the frequency domain ones.

FREQUENCY DOMAIN ELECTROMAGNETICS (FDEM)

The frequency domain method is a technique that uses the inductive properties of a continuous primary electromagnetic field to measure the conductivity of the material through which the field passes. Because the material of which the subsurface is composed controls the ability of the subsurface to carry an electrical current (or hold a secondary field), the conductivity of a material correlates well with grain size (and generally increases with decreasing grain size) these methods can be used to both identify lateral boundaries between different materials and lithology of the materials. Frequency domain methods are also highly sensitive to the chemistry of materials, and therefore can be used for many groundwater applications such as the delineation of shallow high-TDS and contaminant plumes (DNAPL and LNAPL) and the delineation of weathered, altered, or vertical water-bearing zones in bedrock. In addition, these methods are very sensitive to metallic material, and can be used to detect metallic pipes, USTs and drums. The main advantages of this method are given by the speed of execution, reduced costs and not requiring contact with the ground. Innovations in quantitative processing techniques present the method as an important tool in engineering, geotechnical and environmental applications.

WHAT WE OFFER

  • Soil classification.
  • Soil conductivity for grounding and aggressivity assessment. In contrast to galvanic SEV this method allows a larger data coverage.
  • Structural mapping (fractures, shears, etc.).
  • Characterization of the substratum morphology and lateral lithologic variations.
  • Mapping of conductivity anomalies associated with conductors (contaminants or sulfides minerals).
  • Expansive clays mapping.
  • Characterization of aggregate deposits and limestone.
  • Buried metal object detection.
  • Mapping of cavities, karsts and subsidence in the ground.
  • Characterization water content variations in the subsoil and discontinuities in the aquitards.
  • Characterization of saline intrusions.

AVAILABLE INSTRUMENTS

  • TRX - NeXT uses three (3) multi-frequency units DT Barlow FDEM-8, Geophex GEM2, Geonics EM-34.

 

TIME DOMAIN ELECTROMAGNETICS (TDEM)

The time domain method is a technique that uses the inductive properties of a transient primary electromagnetic field to measure the ground response or resistivity of the material through which the field passes after the primary field is turned off.
It is a method whose results, in terms of possibility to characterize the electro stratigraphic sequence, are comparable to those of electrical methods with the clear advantage of greater speed of execution, not requiring contact with the soil or large arrays and its economy of execution (as compared to the quantity and quality of data obtained). Innovations in quantitative processing techniques present the method as an important tool in engineering, geotechnical, hydrology and environmental applications.

WHAT WE OFFER

  • Groundwater exploration. It is the most appropriate method for large-scale exploration in sedimentary hosted aquifer environments.
  • Stratigraphic mapping.
  • Definition of saline intrusions and deep brines.
  • Minerals exploration. Used particularly in environments with massive sulfide deposits.
  • Geothermal exploration. Used to characterize both the stratigraphic sequence and impermeable layers "cap rock" over hot water / steam reservoirs.
  • Oil exploration. In its Lotem version or marine arrangements, the method is used to explore environments where high-speed layers (such as volcanic thrusts) lie above the sedimentary sequence.
  • Environmental studies. Identification and mapping of deep plumes.

AVAILABLE INSTRUMENTS

  • TRX – NeXT Group uses a high resolution digital Geonics Protem + TEM57 units

VLF/VLF-R

The VLF method uses the signal of powerful remote radio transmitters set up in different parts of the world for military communications. In radio communications terminology, VLF means very low frequency, about 15 to 25 kHz. Relative to frequencies generally used in geophysical exploration, these are actually very high frequencies. The radiated field from a remote VLF transmitter, propagating over a uniform or horizontally layered earth and measured on the earth's surface, consists of a vertical electric field component and a horizontal magnetic field component each perpendicular to the direction of propagation. This allow characterizing variations in resistivity in the subsurface to a depth of several dozens of meters by the time electrical properties in the subsoil are affected from the interaction with low frequency radio waves

WHAT WE OFFER

  • Location of conductive structures.
  • Massive metallic minerals detection.
  • Mapping of sub vertical alteration zones.
  • Structures characterization (faults, shears, etc.)

AVAILABLE INSTRUMENTS

TRX - NeXT Group uses a Geonics EM-16 /16R unit.

Ground Penetrating Radar GPR

The TRX group is specialized in radar applications both in the classic Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) as in the Interferometric Radar version.
The TRX NeXT group offers a full range of options in GPR applications, the most versatile tool in no invasive, NO-DIG, trenchless investigations.

WHAT IT MEASURES

Ground penetrating radar (commonly called GPR) is a geophysical method that has been developed for shallow, high-resolution, subsurface investigations of the earth. GPR uses high frequency electromagnetic waves (generally 25 MHz to 2.0GHz) to acquire subsurface information. EM pulse energy is propagated downward into the ground and is partially reflected back to the surface from boundaries at which electrical property contrasts are found (the principle is similar to the one of seismic reflection). GPR is a method that is commonly used for civil engineering-geotechnical, geological, environmental, archaeological, and other shallow investigations (1-40m).

WHAT WE OFFER

  • Detection and mapping of utilities / pipes and buried objects. “As built” investigations.
  • Subsurface soil characterization.
  • Geologic risk studies, fracture, cavity and karst detection.
  • Urban and industrial site characterization.
  • Pipeline routing characterization and monitoring.
  • Pavements engineering in roads, highways, train, bridges, airfields etc.
  • Inspection, characterization of buildings and concrete structures.
  • River and lake bottom profiling (bathymetry, pipes river crossing-bridges projects, dredging,..).
  • Studies in tunnels and galleries.
  • Environmental studies (EPA Phase II and Brownsfield), buried objects and surface characterization of soil contamination.
  • Detection and characterization of water and hydrocarbons leaks in pipes - tanks.
  • Soil studies (segmentation, humidity).
  • Hydrological Studies.
  • Mining (shallow exploration in placers, mines and rivers, and geotechnics).
  • Archaeological and forensic studies.
  • Borehole studies (lithologies, fractures and buried structures (piles, foundations, etc).

OUR STRENGTHS

  • Over 10 years experience in the use of GPR in Venezuela and different countries in latin america and europe.
  • The country's largest range of instrumentation and antennas with a capacity to work at any scale, in any environment (urban & suburban/field) and in all applications.
  • Multi-channel and multi-frequency equipment whose advantage is the possibility to investigate simultaneously at different depths with optimal resolution, getting more spatial assessment in each data acquisition (3D volumetric vision) and increase the probability of detection of buried objects-structures.
  • Real capacity to investigate at greater depths with low-frequency antennas (25 MHz unshielded and 100 MHz bi-static shielded).
  • TRX-NeXT group uses GPR manufactured by IDS (Italy). This state of the art equipment uses a PRF (pulse repetition frequency) of 400 KHz that allow greater resolution and depth of investigation than the North American GPRs that have a PRF of only 100 KHz of (limitation due to regulations of the FCC-Federal Communication Commission).
  • Use of advanced numerical processing that includes 3D assessments and the capacity to export and integrate data in CAD ​​systems along with geographic information including customer data and surface evidences.
  • Technical differences with the "competition.” Competitors use single channel, 100 KHz PRF radars (GSSI, Vermeer, Mala…) with a single antenna frequency (usually 400 MHz). This limits the surface resolution and depth of investigation to only 1.5-2 m maximum (as experienced in typical soils of all Venezuela). This basic radar also does not allow the use of the full range of antennas.  TRX group, besides using multichannel multifrequency radars with a complete range of antennas, also take advantage of referenced data post processing and the use of filters specially designed from local experts as a function of the investigated site and the application.  Standard filters preloaded in the basic GPR units, used in real-time detection, reflect standards and soil behavior of the places where the GPR are manufactured (Canada, USA, Sweden and Italy), conditions not strictly similar to the local ones. The advanced post-processing and spatial assessment, together with the use of multi-frequency channel equipment (services provided by the TRX group) offers the highest detection rate and mapping capability of the investigated targets.

AVAILABLE INSTRUMENTS

TRX group uses four (4) high resolution units with a broad range of shielded and unshielded antennas. 3 IDS GPR RIS K2 multichannel-multi frequency + 1 Mala Ramac GPR with a full range of shielded antennas (80, 200, 600 and 2000 MHz), dual frequency shielded antennas (2x200-600 MHz, 600-1600 MHz), a 4-channel multi polar dual frequency unit, plus surface unshielded antennas 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and a borehole 300 MHz unit. This with latest generation software capable of a 3D CAD interpretation output.

RADAR INTERFEROMETRY

Radar Interferometry is an innovative remote sensing technique that allows vibration and full-scale displacement monitoring of structures (bridges, dams, towers, buildings, etc..) and earth surfaces (instable slopes, landslides, volcanoes, glaciers, mining fronts etc.).

WHAT IT MEASURES

An interferometric radar is constituted by a high frequency (17-20 GHz) electromagnetic waves transmitter and receiver. The transmitted waves are reflected by the object of interest and measured by a high resolution receiver. There are two interferometer radar configurations for engineering applications:

  • IBIS-L / M is a system designed for static field remote monitoring in applications such as risks associated with landslides, slope, and mining, etc.., and
  • IBIS-S a system for both static and dynamic remote monitoring of structures such as bridges, dams, buildings, etc.
 

WHAT WE OFFER

IBIS L (L Land/Slopes application and M for Mining)

  • Monitoring of instable slopes (risk assessment and mining activity).
  • Monitoring of land subsidence.
  • Monitoring volcanic risk.

IBIS S (Structures)

  • Dynamic Monitoring
    • Quality assurance.
    • Structures vibration resonance.
    • Fundamental modes of structures vibration.
    • Seismic qualification of structures / soil structure interaction.
  • Static Monitoring
    • Static Load tests.
    • Deformation and Time Displacement Monitoring.
    • Displacement and Deformation of structures during operation analysis.

METHODOLOGICAL ADVANTAGES

  • Remote Full Scale Monitoring.
  • Sub-millimeter accuracy.
  • Autonomous Operation in any weather condition.
  • Dynamic Measurements: IBIS not only allows continuous monitoring of slow displacements and deformations but also vibration measurements of structures (resonance frequencies, vibration modes) higher than 100 Hz.

AVAILABLE INSTRUMENTS

For the acquisition and processing / interpretation of data the TRX group uses IDS IBIS S and L (M) units with the latest technology processing / interpretation software and direct support of the manufacturer experts.

Foundation Testing

TRX group, which operates in this specialty since 2004, offers the full range of tools for foundations / piles testing.
Piles and other structures belonging to foundations can be very important structural engineering elements (for dynamic loading and role) and very expensive construction elements. These conditions have led the need for high quality control to installation processes and monitoring of post-construction characteristics of the foundations elements. Rules and regulations of different countries define references and precise procedures for foundation testing.

There are two main fields of application of geophysical methods of testing foundations / piles, the integrity analysis and dynamic load tests and the characterization of the dimensions / lengths of the foundations.

Foundations Integrity Assessment & Dynamic Load Tests

Sonic Surface Method: Pulse Echo + Transient Response (PIT FV)

WHAT IT MEASURES

The PIT method (Pile Integrity Testing), defined as Low Strain Dynamic testing, allows to detect defects, soil inclusions and pile necking, diameter increases (bulbing) as well as approximate pile lengths using a sonic pulse. It is applicable to the top of piles and surface structures accessible from the surface and where has not yet built the super structure above them. In the scope of this test the TRX group offers the combination of the Sonic Echo method, which requires a measurement of the travel time of seismic waves (time domain), and the Impulse Response method which uses spectral analysis (frequency domain) for interpretation. The equipment and software used by the TRX group comply with ASTM D5882-07 norm and many other regulations and specifications.

WHAT WE OFFER

  • Integrity of piles and concrete foundations audit.
  • Pile length definition.
  • Determination of piles and concrete structures wave propagation velocity (evaluation of the quality of concrete), and relative rigidity.

AVAILABLE INSTRUMENTS

TRX group uses a unit of "pulse echo" - "transient response" (Pile Dynamics PIT-FV).

Well Sonic Method: Cross Hole Sonic Logging (CHSL)

WHAT IT MEASURES

The borehole Sonic method may evaluate the quality of the concrete of deep foundations by the Single Hole Sonic Logging (SSL) method, in addition to performing Cross Hole Sonic Logging (CSL). Drilled shafts are prepared for the test by installation of PVC or steel tubes during their construction. During the test a transmitter is lowered down one of the tubes and sends a high frequency signal to a receiver inserted in another tube. Transmitter and receiver move down each pair of tubes, scanning the entire length of the shaft.

The equipment and software used by the TRX group meets or exceeds the specifications of ASTM D6760-08 - Standard Test Method for Integrity Testing of Concrete Deep Foundations by Ultrasonic crosshole Testing and many other codes and regulations.

WHAT WE OFFER

  • Integrity and quality audit of piles and concrete foundations.

AVAILABLE INSTRUMENTS

  • TRX group uses a high-resolution cross hole Pile Dynamics CHSL unit

Pile Dynamic Testing Method (PDA)

WHAT IT MEASURES

The PDA method (Pile Dynamic Testing) is defined as High Strain Dynamic testing and allows evaluating piles integrity as well as its load capacity and dynamic response. The Pile Driving Analyzer (PDA) acquires data from accelerometers and strain transducers attached to the pile or shaft, while it is impacted by a pile driving hammer or other suitable drop weight. The PDA analyzer and software used by the TRX group comply with ASTM D4945 and many other codes and specifications.

WHAT WE OFFER

The main objective of the Dynamic Testing is to obtain the breaking capacity of the soil. However, alongside other information can be obtained by the test. Some of the most important are:

  • Static shaft resistance, magnitude and distribution
  • Static end bearing
  • Stresses at any point along the shaft
  • Energy transferred to the foundation.

AVAILABLE INSTRUMENTS

For the acquisition and processing / interpretation of data TRX group uses a PDI high-resolution Pile Dynamics PAX 2011 unit and CAPWAP latest generation software.

 

Foundation / Piles Dimensions and Length Characterization

The methods described below can be additionally used by TRX group for determining the dimensions and/or length of foundations / piles. The surface methods allow the investigation of foundations / piles whose structures are accessible

Surface Sonic Method: PIT FV

WHAT IT MEASURES

The PIT method (Pile Integrity Testing), described above, allows to investigate the length of piles using a sonic pulse.

WHAT WE OFFER

  • Determine the length of a pile.

AVAILABLE INSTRUMENTS

TRX group uses a unit of "pulse echo" - "transient response" (Pile Dynamics PIT-FV)

Surface GPR Method

WHAT IT MEASURES

Through the use of different frequencies antennas (especially high frequency ones) GPR sections can show dimensions and integrity of foundations.

WHAT WE OFFER

  • Characterization of fractures and delaminations within the concrete.
  • Identification of rebars, steel tension cables.
  • Identification of areas of moisture / dissolution / alteration within and behind the concrete.
  • Study of concrete thickness and layering.
  • Detection of utilities / cavities and discontinuities inside and below the concrete.
  • Subsidence / scour under the concrete.

AVAILABLE INSTRUMENTS

TRX group uses a multichannel acquisition unit IDS RIS K2 with mono statics antennas, bi static and cross-polar mono and bi frequencies of 2000, 600, 200 MHz with the possibility of “transillumination" between concrete surfaces.

Borehole Sonic Method

WHAT IT MEASURES

Is a borehole method that is used for determining the depth and unknown geometry of an foundation or pile, using a sonic transmitter and receiver to obtain electromagnetic waves reflections along the structure surface.

WHAT WE OFFER

  • Length and geometry of a pile / foundation definition.

AVAILABLE INSTRUMENTS

TRX group uses a Pile Dynamics unit.

Borehole GPR Method

WHAT IT MEASURES

This method that is used for determining the depth and unknown geometry of an foundation or pile using a GPR antenna to obtain electromagnetic waves reflections along the structure surface.

WHAT WE OFFER

  • Length and geometry of a pile / foundation definition.
  • Inside drillings outside the pile can identify an eventual bottleneck with exposed rebars.

AVAILABLE INSTRUMENTS

TRX group uses an IDS RIS K2 GPR with a 300 MHz antenna probe.

Borehole Parallel Seismic

WHAT IT MEASURES

The Parallel Seismic (PS) method is a borehole test method for determining depths of foundations. The method requires the installation of cased borehole close to the foundation being tested. The method can be used when the foundation tops are not accessible or when the piles are too long and slender (such as H piles or driven piles) to be testable by sonic echo techniques.

WHAT WE OFFER

  • Length and geometry of a pile / foundation definition.
  • The method can also detect major anomalies within a foundation as well as provide the surrounding soil velocity profile (using a triaxial sensor).

AVAILABLE INSTRUMENTS

TRX group uses a high resolution DAQ LINQ III - 24 seismograph and two triaxial sensors (ultra-thin for small holes).

Borehole Induction Field (IF)

WHAT IT MEASURES

Induction Field (IF) method is used for the determination of the unknown depth of steel or continuously reinforced concrete piles. This is an electrical method that relies on detecting the magnetic field in response to an oscillating current impressed into a steel pile. In order for this method to work, the pile must, therefore, contain electrically conductive materials. For reinforced concrete piles, this usually implies that reinforcing rebar extends along its full length. A sensor is placed down a drillhole located close to the pile and detects the changing magnetic field strength. This sensor could be a magnetic field sensor or a coil. Along the length of the pile, the magnetic field strength will be relatively strong. However, the magnetic field strength will be significantly diminished at levels in the drillhole beneath the bottom of the pile to a residual conductivity value of the soil or bedrock. This change in the magnetic field strength is used to determine the depth of the pile.

WHAT WE OFFER

  • Pile/ foundation of iron / steel or with a continuous metal frame length definition.

AVAILABLE INSTRUMENTS

TRX group uses a Mount Sopris unit

WELL LOGGING

The TRX group offers a wide range of methods to log / testing well. Among these:

SPR

Single Point Resistance. Resistivity. Used in hydrology studies to determine the conductivity of formation water and boundaries of layers. Single point logs cannot be used for quantitative interpretation, but they are excellent for lithologic information. The resistance of any medium depends not only on its composition, but also on the cross sectional area and length of the path through that medium. Single point resistance systems measure the resistance, in W, between an electrode in the well and an electrode at the surface or between two electrodes in the well. It is applied in an uncased borehole.

SP

Self Potential. Spontaneous potential. The spontaneous potential log is a record of potentials or voltages that develop at the contacts between shale or clay beds and a sand aquifer, where they are penetrated by a drill hole. This method is used in a timely manner to solve aquifers boundaries or water movement. It is applied in an uncased borehole.

Natural Gamma

Gamma spectrometry. It is the most important logging tool in hydrogeology. Provides information about the boundaries of layers, the clay content and, indirectly, permeability. It can be run in wells with PVC or iron pipes. Because of its sensitivity to clay minerals, one of the most common uses for this log is to delineate clays and shales; however, it is also very effective for the identification of potassium-bearing, uranium-bearing and thorium-bearing sediments and rocks under certain conditions. The natural gamma log is particularly useful where geologic layers of contrasting natural gamma radiation are juxtaposed, such as sand vs. clay, arkose vs. limestone, and granite vs. schist; and for mineral exploration. The natural gamma tool has no casing restrictions and is capable of measuring natural gamma radiation in the vadose zone. It is an essential tool (along with the TV camera) to the reevaluation of old wells design.

Groundwater Data Logger "DIVER" (Schlumberger Water Services - SWS)

Water depletion, flooding, salinization, and a shortage of clean drinking water are problems that continue to grow worldwide. Regular and reliable measuring and monitoring of groundwater levels have become more important than ever. TRX uses and represent the products of Schlumberger Water Services SWS.
SWS sensors of can be applied to:

  • Long-term monitoring of water level.
  • Network Automation of Groundwater monitoring.
  • Data record during pumping and permeability tests.
  • Water, drainage basins and recharge areas monitoring.
  • Hydrometry, lake and reservoirs levels monitoring.
  • Ports and coastal areas fluctuation of tides and saline intrusion monitoring.
  • Humidity / wetlands and stormwater runoff monitoring.
  • Landfill monitoring.
  • Monitoring of water levels and salinity for projects of aquifer storage and recovery.

Physical Chemical multi sensor probes (Surface and Borehole)

  • Temperature,
  • Fluid Conductivy,
  • pH,
  • Oxygen in solution,
  • ReDox,
  • Pressure.

Borehole Seismic (DOWNHOLE & CROSSHOLE)

The TRX group offers both the Downhole as the Crosshole methods using mechanical high-energy sources which produce an excellent signal noise ratio indispensable to obtain good quality data.
The two methods can be applied to engineering and geotechnical studies:

  • Geological-geotechnical investigations for civil engineering at shallow depth (0-50m).
  • Foundations studies.
  • Definition of seismic stratigraphy, geotechnical rock-substratum depth.
  • Determination of dynamic properties.
  • Evaluation of type parameters RQD, UCS, Q-RQD (Barton) in rocks and qa, allowable bearing capacity in soils.
  • Seismic Micro-zonation.
  • The downhole method may allow the determination piles - structures length (parallel seismic method)

Borehole Full Wave Sonic (Full Waveform Sonic - FWS)

The full wave sonic log allows determining the speed of both shear Vs and compressional Vp waves. Subsequently, elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio and parameters associated with rock quality can be assessed. This defines the method as fundamental tool in engineering/construction projects, mine design and in excavation technologies optimization (blasting or tunneling machine selection). Additionally, in open holes, allows estimating fracturation, porosity and permeability.

Borehole GPR

This tool is assuming an increasingly greater role in the hydrogeological, environmental, geotechnical and mining industry. Measurements can be made inside the same well or can be made between wells in a tomographic form (transmitter and receiver in separate wells). Measurements in a single well permit, in particular, the location and orientation of layering and fractures and a number of other parameters. Tomography can map the fracture zones between wells. This information is very important in the study of fractured limestone aquifers as well as in the study of contaminant transport. Some applications are:

  • Geological and engineering investigations.
  • Environmental studies (characterization of contaminated areas).
  • Mining exploration.
  • Dams and dikes integrity assessment.
  • Tunnel studies.
  • Detection, characterization and monitoring of fractures and cavities (karsts…).
  • Hydrologic studies.
  • Identification of underground structures (tanks, piles, etc.).
  • Piles length characterization.

Borehole Telecamera

The TV record allows inspection of well conditions, see the lithological texture, size and color of rock grains and evaluate the water level and characteristics inside the well. These records can be obtained in wells filled with water or air. The image can be displayed in real time and results represents the ideal method to study fractured rock aquifers and the physical condition of operational and disused well casings.

WHAT WE OFFER

  • Hydrological Exploration, management and monitoring studies.
  • Engineering and Geotechnical Studies.
  • Minerals Exploration
  • Estudios de Ingeniería y Geotecnia
  • Exploración de Minerales

AVAILABLE INSTRUMENTS

  • Two Mount Sopris units Matrix and GXII model with a wide range of sensors and winches of 350 and 600m.
  • Multiple Schlumberger Water Services Mini-Diver, Baro-Driver, Micro-Diver data loggers and latest generation software.
  • Two high resolution seismographs DAQ LINQ III – 24 and two triaxial sensors (one ultra Slim for 2.5” boreholes) and latest generation software.   
  • Three IDS RIS K2 GPR radars with a borehole antenna of 300 MHz and latest generation software. Two digital multiple direction GeoVision well digital telecameras and latest generation software.